The "father of China's cloning technology," Tong Dizhou, died on March 30th, 1979. He is remembered for his contributions to the field of cloning.
Tong Dizhou was born in Yinxian county in eastern China's Zhejiang province in 1902. He graduated from Shanghai's Fudan University in 1924 with a degree in psychology and received a doctorate in science in 1930 from the Free University of Brussels.
Tong Dizhou learned from famous European embryologists while studying in Belgium. He published several papers after careful observation and research that exerted great effects on the field of biology in Europe at the time.
In 1963, Tong inserted the DNA of a male carp into the egg of a female carp and became the first to successfully clone a fish. He also made breakthroughs in other biological studies and research, finding new ways to control a fish's hereditary variations.
Tong Dizhou was once the director of the biology department of the China Academy of Sciences. He was also the vice-president of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1978 to 1979.
A seminar was held on July 12th, 2002 in Beijing to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Tong Dizhou.
After five years of construction, the first subway in Canada opened in Toronto on March 30th, 1954.
The project was carried out by the publicly owned Toronto Transit Commission. It proposed building a rapid transit system under Yonge Street, the city's principal north-south artery. The voters of Toronto approved the proposal on January 1st, 1946. Construction commenced in September 1949.
Promising comfort and speed, modernity and convenience, Toronto's Yonge subway was the very first subway line in Canada. It was the beginning of postwar Toronto's efforts to accommodate the demands of the city's emerging prosperity and its future. It spurred intense new apartment and office construction around major intersections. The subway, in effect, shaped modern Toronto.
Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh was born on March 30th, 1853. His formal distortions and the humanistic concerns in his paintings made him a principal forerunner of 20th-century expressionism.
Van Gogh spent his early life working at an art dealer firm. After a brief spell as a teacher, he became a missionary in a very poor mining region. He did not start painting until 1880 at the age of 27.
His paintings and drawings include some of the world's best known, most popular and most expensive pieces, including "The Potato Eaters," "Starry Night," "Sunflowers" and "Irises." They are characterized by bold, rhythmic brushstrokes and vivid colors.
He suffered from recurrent bouts of mental illness and during one bout, famously cut off the lower half of his own left ear. On July 27th, 1890, he shot himself in a deserted field and died in the morning two days later.
Van Gogh produced all of his works during the last 20 years of his life, including around 900 paintings and 1,100 drawings or sketches. Most of his best-known works were produced in the final two years of his life, especially in the two months before his death.
His work had a powerful influence on the development of modern painting and he is considered the greatest Dutch painter since Rembrandt.
The first pencil with an attached eraser was patented by Hyman Lipman of Philadelphia on March 30th, 1858.
Until the advent of Lipman's invention, people used separate erasers when writing, drawing and figuring. The inventor conceived the simple idea of combining pencil and eraser in one. His invention offered a pencil with a groove on top into which the eraser was glued.
The patent made Lipman $100,000. However, it was declared invalid later because his invention was actually a combination of two already known things without new use.