A majority of the Chinese population is engaged in agriculture. As a result, agriculture plays a very important role in China's economy.

Although China has an area of 9.6 million square kilometres, arable land only covers 1.27 million square meters, accounting for 7% of the world total. The arable land is mainly distributed in the eastern plains and basins. Crop planting is the most important sector in agriculture. The main crops include rice paddies, wheat, corn and soybeans. Economic crops include cotton, peanuts, rape, sugarcane and beet.

The rapid development of China's agriculture began in 1978 when China began rural reform. Over the past 20 years, China's rural reform was carried out under the framework of a collective-owned system. The market was used to help break the bondage with the traditional system to explore a new style of a market economy. 

Reform has brought great benefit to farmers, liberalized the production force in rural areas and promoted agricultural development. There has been rapid growth in grain production and the optimisation of agricultural mix resulting in great agricultural achievements. At present, China's grain, cotton, tobacco, meat, eggs, aquatic products and vegetables all rank first in the world.

The Chinese government has always attached great importance to agriculture. It has constantly increased its investment in agriculture and helped increase farmers' income in order to realize the harmonious development between rural and urban areas.