General Introduction of China's Diplomacy

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, China's diplomatic relations opened a new page.


During the first upsurge in the establishment of diplomatic relations in the early 1950s, New China established diplomatic ties with the USSR, the East European socialist states and some neighboring Asian nationalist countries. After the conclusion of the 1955 Asian-African conference, China has persistently supported the Arab peoples in their fight against imperialism, strongly supported the African countries and peoples in their struggle against colonialism and racialism and firmly supported the struggles of the Latin American people to resist the US. Until 1956, there were 25 countries having diplomatic ties with China.


From the latter half of the 50s to the end of the 60s, China established diplomatic ties with many more countries, forming a second upsurge in the establishment of diplomatic relations. At the end of 1969 there were 50 countries that have diplomatic relations with China, doubled the figure at the end of 1955, when there were only 23 countries that had diplomatic relations with China. All the newly added countries except France were in Asia, Africa and Latin America, and a further breakdown showed that all were Arab and African countries except Ceylon, Cambodia, Laos and Cuba.


One of the most important turning points for New China's diplomacy emerged in October, 1971. With support from most developing countries, the United Nations passed with an overwhelming majority of votes a resolution on restoring China's lawful seat in the UN. China's international status was vastly enhanced. During this period, Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai made timely and farsighted major decisions in view of changes in the international situation, thus opening new horizons for China's diplomacy and ushering in a third wave of establishing diplomatic relations with other countries.


From the latter half of the 70s to the end of the 80s, under the guideline of Deng Xiaoping's diplomatic thought, China developed normal ties with the United States, Japan and Western Europe, improved relations with the former Soviet Union and comprehensively developed ties with countries of the third world. After diplomatic talks with Britain and Portugal, China claimed that the Chinese central government would resume its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong on July 1st, 1997.


And on December 20, 1999, Macao would also return to the embrace of the motherland.


Since the early 1990s, the third-general leadership of the Communist Party of China, with Jiang Zemin at the core, inherited and creatively implemented Deng Xiaoping's thought and the independent foreign policy of peace. China pursued the development of diplomatic ties with countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence and facilitate the establishment of a new international political and economic order. During this period, China resumed diplomatic ties with Indonesia, established relations with Singapore and South Korea and realized diplomatic normalization with Vietnam and Mongolia.


In 1996, President Jiang Zemin visited three south Asian countries, further developing relations with India, Pakistan and Nepal. Moreover, China also attached great importance to fostering diplomatic ties with more developing countries. The number of Latin American countries establishing ties with China increased to 19.


The major sign marking the beginning of the new century is the increasing development of multilateralism and economic globalization. China is the developing country with the biggest population in the world. China's development needs the world and vice versa. China sincerely hopes to strengthen cooperation and seek common development with all countries and regions on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence.