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2017-10-03 NEWS Plus Special English
   2017-09-28 14:07:06    CRIENGLISH.com      Web Editor: Du Lijun

This is Special English. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing. Here is the news.
China's Mars probe will carry 13 types of payload, including six rovers, in its first mission to the planet, scheduled for 2020.
A chief architect of the mission says the Mars exploration program is well underway. The payloads will be used to collect data on the environment, surface structure and atmosphere of Mars.
China plans to send a spacecraft to orbit, land and deploy a rover on Mars in 2020. The probe will be launched on a Long March-5 carrier rocket from the launch center in southern China's Hainan Province.
The lander will separate from the orbiter at the end of a journey of around seven months and touch down in a low latitude area in the northern hemisphere of Mars where the rover will explore the surface.
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Australian scientists say the first transaction in space mining could be only 10 years away.
The third Off Earth Mining Forum has been held in Sydney Australia. The two-day event aims to give researchers, developers and investors a window into what will soon be possible. The event saw the presence of some of the sharpest minds on hand to represent the world's leading institutions including NASA and the European Space Agency, just to name a few.
An official at the meeting said that although once thought of as pure science fiction, space is set to become the new economic frontier; and the future of space mining will become a huge part of that.
He said that initially people are not looking at replacing mining on earth; they are replacing stuff in space. But surprisingly, it seems the first commodity that will likely be mined in the cosmos, is water.
One of the big values of water in space is that when you separate it using solar energy it becomes hydrogen and oxygen. And these are the basis for rocket fuel and that rocket fuel can be delivered in space much more cheaply, rather than bringing it from earth.
There are still a number of technical challenges that face engineering experts, when it comes to carrying out these kinds of missions.
You're listening to Special English. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing.
China's new-generation bullet train, the rejuvenation, has traveled at a speed of 350 kilometers per hour, making it the world's fastest bullet train, starting on Sept 21.
The train has made seven round trips between Beijing and Shanghai, cutting the travel time between the two cities from 5-and-a-half hours to 4-and-a-half hours.
Launched in June, this is China's third-generation bullet train over which it has the complete intellectual property rights.
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NXP Semiconductors, the world's top chip maker for the auto industry, is in discussions with the Chinese search engine Baidu on a partnership to promote self-driving technology. A senior executive of NXP said this is part of a broader effort to tap into the booming internet for vehicles market in China.
Kurt Sievers, general manager of automotive business at NXP, said the two sides will cooperate on radar solutions, computer technology and possibly on cyber security issues.
He said China is expected to surpass the United States as the company's largest automotive business market in the next three years.
Sievers said his company believes that Chinese auto brands will conquer the world and will offer great growth opportunities for their company. He said the two sides will become globally successful; and it is not only about China, but winning the Chinese customers.
The Dutch company has inked a deal with the government of Chongqing in southwestern China to set up an application center, ensuring that its increasingly complex products, especially microprocessors, can fully support local partners.
With a focus on application engineering, it plans to build a team of 100 people in the city. Chongqing is the largest auto production base in China, with an annual production capacity of 4 million units.
You're listening to Special English. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing.
Online jihadist propaganda attracts more clicks in Britain than any other European country and the main internet companies are failing to curb it.
A report published by the Policy Exchange think tank said that the information came as it is still early in the days of an investigation where an explosion hit a rush-hour carriage at a subway station in west London, which left 30 people injured.
Referring to the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, the report said Jihadists have shown particular facility in exploring ungoverned or even inadequately governed spaces in the Islamic world.
The report said it is clear that the counter-extremism efforts and other initiatives to combat extremism on line have, until now, been inadequate".
The report found that two thirds of British people believe that internet companies are doing too little to combat radicalization and three quarters want them to do more.
In June, Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube announced a global internet forum to tackle terrorism. They said that the collaboration would focus on technological solutions including A1 machine learning techniques, research and partnerships with governments and civic groups.
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A new study finds that the United States made little progress from 2000 to 2010 in reducing relative disparities between people of color and whites in exposure to harmful air pollution emitted by cars, trucks and other combustion sources.
The study builds on the work led by researchers at the University of Washington in both 2000 and 2010. It identified that disparities in exposure to outdoor concentrations of a transportation-related pollutant, namely nitrogen dioxide, were larger by race and ethnicity than by income, age or education.
The relative inequality persisted across the decade.
For the study, the researchers developed a first-of-its-kind model that combines satellite and regulatory measurements with land use data to predict pollution at a neighborhood level throughout the United States.
Yet people of color were, on average, consistently exposed to more air pollution than their white non-Hispanic counterparts during the decade.
Considering relative differences, nonwhites experienced 40 percent higher exposures than whites in 2000. In 2010, that gap shrunk slightly, to 37 percent.
The study concludes that if people of color had breathed the lower nitrogen dioxide levels experienced by whites in 2010, it would have prevented an estimated 5,000 premature deaths from heart disease among the nonwhite group.
You're listening to Special English. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing. You can access the program on our Apple Podcast. Now the news continues.
The World Health Organization warns the world is in a serious lack of new antibiotics under development to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. It is calling on governments and industries to urgently focus on research and development of new antibiotics.
A report from the organization revealed that most of the drugs currently in the clinical pipeline are modifications of existing classes of antibiotics, and are only short-term solutions. This means that there are very few potential treatment options for those antibiotic-resistant infections identified by the organization as posing the greatest threat to health, including drug-resistant tuberculosis which kills around 250,000 people each year.
The organization says antibiotic resistance is a global health emergency that will seriously jeopardize progress in modern medicine. There is an urgent need for more investment in research and development for antibiotic-resistant infections including tuberculosis. The organization says that otherwise, we will be forced back to a time when people feared common infections and risked their lives from minor surgeries.
The report identifies 51 new antibiotics and biologicals in clinical development to treat priority antibiotic-resistant pathogens, but only eight are classed by the organization as innovative treatments that will add value to the current antibiotic treatment arsenal.
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A cocktail of two or three antibodies could be more effective than a single one in preventing HIV transmission. That's according to results from two separate monkey studies.
In a study published in the U.S. journal Science, researchers combined three broadly neutralizing antibodies into a three-pronged antibody in order to mount a stronger immune response.
The so-called "tri-specific" antibody, made by researchers from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Paris-based pharmaceutical company Sanofi, works by binding to three different critical sites on HIV.
After exposing 24 monkeys to two strains of a monkey form of HIV, researchers found the majority of those receiving either of the antibodies developed infection, but all those receiving the triple combination were fully protected from the virus.
The three-pronged antibody was also found able to stop a greater number of HIV strains from infecting cells in the laboratory more potently than natural, single antibodies.
Researchers said plans are under way to conduct early-phase clinical trials of the "tri-specific" antibody in healthy people and in people living with HIV, in the hope that it could eventually be used for long-acting HIV prevention and treatment.
You're listening to Special English. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing.
Mothers in China are not passing on protective antibodies against measles to their infants, leaving children under 8 months vulnerable to the disease.
Researchers at the University of Michigan found that moreover, the level of protective antibodies decreased with age, with almost all infants lacking maternal antibodies at 3 months old.
The study shows that current vaccination programs are not effective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. Researchers suggest that the infants or their mothers may need additional protection.
Although infant deaths have decreased by 79 percent since 2000, measles continues to be one of the most infectious diseases in the world, and claimed more than 134,000 lives worldwide in 2015, mostly infants and young children. And a large percentage of measles cases continue to occur in China.
In China, children usually receive the first dose of measles vaccine at 8 months, and the second dose at 18-24 months.
Researchers say that despite China's great success in vaccination, measles continues to occur at unacceptably high rates in both infants and young adults; and this points to the need for new approaches, including the possibility of launching organized campaigns to immunize young women of reproductive age.
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Men may have greater physical strength than women, but women have much greater muscle endurance than their male counterparts.
A recent study shows that women are considerably less exhausted after natural, dynamic muscle exercises than men of a similar age and athletic ability.
Researchers at the University of British Colombia said people have known for some time that women are less fatigable than men during isometric muscle tests which are static exercises where joints don't move, such as holding a weight. But scientists wanted to find out if that's true during more dynamic and practical everyday movements. And the answer is pretty definitive: women can outlast men by a wide margin.
The study had a small sample, involving eight men and nine women at a similar level of physical fitness to flex their foot against a suite of sensors as quickly as they could 200 times.
The speed, power and torque of their movements and electrical activity of their muscles was then captured and recorded over time. What the researchers found is that males were faster and more powerful at first but became more fatigued much faster than females.
Although only one muscle group was studied, the team said they expect similar results for other muscle groups and the results are consistent with what has been observed elsewhere.

This is the end of this edition of Special English. To freshen up your memory, I'm going to read one of the news items again at normal speed. Please listen carefully.
This is the end of today's program. I'm Ryan Price in Beijing, and I hope you can join us every day, to learn English and learn about the world.



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