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Archaeologist finds tomb of King Herod
考古学家发现希律王墓
    2007-05-10 11:07:15     CRIENGLISH.com

Archaeologist finds tomb of King Herod

 

考古学家发现希律王墓

An Israeli archaeologist has found the tomb of King Herod, the legendary builder of ancient Jerusalem and the Holy Land(1), Hebrew University said Monday.

The tomb is at a site called Herodium, a flattened hilltop in the Judean Desert, clearly visible from southern Jerusalem. Herod built a palace on the hill, and researchers discovered his burial site there, the university said.

The university had hoped to keep the find a secret until Tuesday, when it planned a news conference to disclose the find in detail, but the Haaretz newspaper found out about the discovery and published an article on its Web site.

Herod became the ruler of the Holy Land under the Romans around 74 B.C. The wall he built around the Old City of Jerusalem still stands, and he also ordered big construction projects in Caesaria, Jericho, the hilltop fortress of Massada and other sites.

It has long been assumed Herod was buried at Herodium, but decades of excavations(2) had failed to turn up the site. The 1st century historian Josephus Flavius described the tomb and Herod's funeral procession(3).

Haaretz said the tomb was found by archaeologist Ehud Netzer, a Hebrew University professor who has been working at Herodium since 1972. The paper said the tomb was in a previously unexplored area between the two palaces Herod built on the site. Herod died in 4 B.C. in Jericho.

Herodium was one of the last strong points held by Jewish rebels fighting against the Romans, and it was conquered and destroyed by Roman troops in A.D. 71, a year after they destroyed the Second Temple(4) in Jerusalem.

 





1. Holy Land:圣地,圣经中耶稣诞生地,巴勒斯坦地区

2. excavation:发掘、挖掘

3. procession:队伍

4. Second Temple:第二神殿,圣经记载犹太人出埃及以后,在西奈半岛漫游了多年,最终在巴勒斯坦定居下来。公元前七八百年,大卫王统一各部落,建立犹太国,定都耶路撒冷,建立了一座神庙,成为犹太教中心,这就是第一神殿。

 

周一希伯来大学称一位以色列考古学家发现了古代耶路撒冷和圣地的传说创立人—希律王之墓。
 


希伯来大学称墓穴发现于希律堡—从南耶路撒冷可以很清晰地望见这座被夷平的朱迪安沙漠小丘顶。希律王在这座山坡上盖了一座城堡,研究人员正是在这里发现穴址。


希伯来大学本来想在周二召开记者招待会宣布发现细节,之前保密,结果Haaretz报纸知道了这一发现并将之刊登在网站上。




公元前74年左右,希律成为罗马统治下的圣地统治者。他在耶路撒冷古城建的城墙依旧屹立在风沙中,他还曾发令在凯撒、耶利哥、马萨山顶堡垒和其他地方实施大规模建筑工程。



长久以来人们猜测希律王被埋葬在希律堡,但是几十年的挖掘均无成果。一世纪历史学家Josephus Flavius曾经描述过希律王的墓穴和送葬队伍。




Haaretz说希伯利亚大学考古学家Ehud Netzer从1972年开始研究希律堡并最终发现了希律墓。报纸上说墓穴位于希律建造的两座宫殿中间,此区域之前未被人探索过。公元前4年希律王逝世于耶利哥。



希律堡是犹太反抗罗马战争中的最后战略要地之一,但是在公元71年被罗马占领并摧毁,就在一年前罗马军队刚刚摧毁耶路撒冷第二圣殿。



 

中国国际广播电台 译


 

大卫王死后王国分裂为南北两个国家。北边的叫以色列国,公元前七百多年被亚述帝国所灭。南边的叫犹太国,以耶路撒冷为都城,又存在一两百年。公元前五百多年,巴比伦王国兴起,灭了亚述,也灭了犹太国。第一神殿被毁。耶路撒冷大批居民被移往巴比伦城。这就是“巴比伦之囚”。

后来巴比伦被波斯帝国所灭,波斯帝国在与希腊城邦的战争中失败,又被马其顿王亚历山大大帝所灭。这几百年犹太人是这些帝国的臣民,渐渐回到耶路撒冷城,又重建了神庙,叫第二神殿。在波斯-希腊统治这段时期,政策宽松,他们作为属国,还是有自己的王的。哈罗德王重修神殿,这就是第叁神殿。

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