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Four Cardinal Principles
    2008-10-31 17:04:16     Xinhua
The principles were first put forward by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to ensure the continuation of the reform and opening up. They are: the principle of upholding the socialist path; the principle of upholding the people's democratic dictatorship; the principle of upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the principle of upholding Marxist-Leninist-Mao Zedong thought.

Though the Gang of Four was toppled, Deng's reform and opening up policy was under attack by people from the left. They criticized the economic reforms and opening up, basically, as capitalist practice, running counter to Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. On the right, some people saw the disastrous outcome of the Cultural Revolution and started doubting the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

By insisting on the Four Cardinal Principles, Deng Xiaoping aimed at fending off the attacks from the left, which is, in Deng's words, "phony, ultra-Left socialism pushed by the Gang of Four, which boils down to universal poverty," and also from the right that was opposed to the Four Cardinal Principles.

 
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